In finance, unsecured debt refers to any type of debt or general obligation that is not protected by a guarantor, or collateralized by a lien on specific assets of the borrower in the case of a bankruptcy or liquidation or failure to meet the terms for repayment.
In the event of the bankruptcy of the borrower, the unsecured creditors will have a general claim on the assets of the borrower after the specific pledged assets have been assigned to the secured creditors. The unsecured creditors will usually realize a smaller proportion of their claims than the secured creditors.
In some legal systems, unsecured creditors who are also indebted to the insolvent debtor are able (and in some jurisdictions, required) to set off the debts, which actually puts the unsecured creditor with a matured liability to the debtor in a pre-preferential position.
Under risk-based pricing, creditors tend to demand extremely high interest rates as a condition of extending unsecured debt. The maximum loss on a properly collateralized loan is the difference between the fair market value of the collateral and the outstanding debt. Thus, in the context of secured lending, the use of collateral reduces the size of the “bet” taken by the creditor on the debtor’s creditworthiness. Without collateral, the creditor stands to lose the entire sum outstanding at the point of default, and must boost the interest rate to price in that risk. Where high interest rates are considered usurious, unsecured loans are either not made at all, or are made by loan sharks unafraid of the law.
Unsecured loans are often sought out in cases where additional capital is required although existing (but not necessarily all) assets have been pledged to secure prior debt. Secured lenders will more often than not include language in the loan agreement that prevents debtor from assuming additional secured loans or pledging any assets to a creditor.
An unsecured loan is a loan that is issued and supported only by the borrower’s creditworthiness, rather than by any type of collateral. An unsecured loan is one that is obtained without the use of property as collateral for the loan, and it is also called a signature loan or a personal loan. Borrowers generally must have high credit ratings to be approved for certain unsecured loans.
Because an unsecured loan is not guaranteed by any type of property, these loans are bigger risks for lenders and, as such, typically have higher interest rates than secured loans such as mortgages or car loans.
What Are Examples of Unsecured Loans?
Unsecured loans include credit cards, student loans and personal loans, and these loans can be revolving or term loans. A revolving loan is a loan that has a credit limit that can be spent, repaid and spent again. Examples of revolving unsecured loans include credit cards and personal lines of credit.
Term loans, in contrast, are loans that the borrower repays in equal installments until the loan is paid off at the end of its term. While these types of loans are often affiliated with secured loans such as mortgages and car loans, there are also unsecured term loans. A consolidation loan to pay off credit cards or a signature loan from a bank would be considered unsecured term loans.
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