Precious metals are rare, naturally occurring metallic chemical elements of high economic value. Chemically, the precious metals tend to be less reactive than most elements. They are usually ductile and have a high lustre. Historically, precious metals were important as currency but are now regarded mainly as investment and industrial commodities. Gold, silver, platinum, iron, and palladium each have an ISO 4217 currency code.
The best known precious metals are the coinage metals, which are gold and silver. Although both have industrial uses, they are better known for their uses in art, jewelry, fine jewelry and coinage. Other precious metals include the platinum group metals: ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, osmium, iridium, and platinum, of which platinum is the most widely traded. The demand for precious metals is driven not only by their practical use but also by their role as investments and a store of value. Historically, precious metals have commanded much higher prices than common industrial metals.
Precious metals refer to the classification of metals that are considered to be rare and/or have a high economic value. The higher relative values of these metals are driven by various factors including their rarity, uses in industrial processes and as investment vehicles. The most popular precious metals with investors are gold, platinum and silver, and precious metals used in industrial processes include iridium, which is used in specialty alloys and palladium, which is used in electronics and chemical applications.
Investors can participate in precious metals by purchasing the physical asset, purchasing futures contracts for the particular metal or through the purchase of shares in publicly traded companies engaged in the exploration or production of precious metals. Mutual funds and exchange-traded funds (ETFs) also offer a variety of strategies, including funds backed by bullion, portfolios of mining companies and leveraged exposure.
As an investment, precious metals are sought after to diversify portfolios and as a store of value, particularly as a hedge against inflation and during times of financial uncertainty. The single most popular precious metal for investment purposes is gold, followed by silver, and there are several options for gaining exposure.
A metal is deemed to be precious if it is rare. The discovery of new sources of ore or improvements in mining or refining processes may cause the value of a precious metal to diminish. The status of a precious metal can also be determined by high demand or market value. Precious metals in bulk form are known as bullion and are traded on commodity markets. Bullion metals may be cast into ingots or minted into coins. The defining attribute of bullion is that it is valued by its mass and purity rather than by a face value as money. Precious metals can be purchased and held in the form of bars or coins. Gold bars typically carry a very low margin over spot prices, but can be cumbersome. Gold coins such as one-ounce South African Krugerrands also trade close to spot prices and offer more flexibility for investors who are buying or selling in quantities less than 400 troy ounces, which is the standard gold bar size.
A wide variety of commodities are traded in the futures market, including precious metals. Futures offer investors a leveraged means of buying or selling precious metals, set at a specific price and time in the future. Futures are generally viewed as speculative vehicles, but they can also be used to lock in prices for purchases and sales of physical commodities.
Gold Mining Companies
Publicly traded mining companies offer exposure to precious metals at the producer level, but this category has underperformed other vehicles due to a variety of challenges including high company debt levels, rising labor costs and environmental issues. In addition to subpar performance, buying individual producers magnifies risk when compared to diversified holdings.
For investors seeking diversified exposure to precious metals mining companies, there are numerous mutual funds offering exposure in varying geographies and markets caps. Investors can select between funds that limit holdings to specific areas or invest globally, as well as in large gold mining concerns or junior producers.
The widest range of investment strategies for precious metals can be found in exchange-traded funds with options including junior and senior producers, gold bullion, and leveraged exposure. In addition to offering numerous strategies, ETFs offer the advantage of daily liquidity and low transaction costs.
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